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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 117-122

Enhanced anticancer effect by combination of proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on bladder cancer cells


Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sensuke Konno
Department of Urology, New York Medical College, BSB Room A03, Valhalla, NY 10595
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ctm.ctm_25_18

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Aim: Mushroom extract, PDF, is a bioactive proteoglucan with anticancer/antitumor activity, and Vitamin K3 (VK3) is a synthetic VK derivative with antitumor activity as well. An unconventional approach using these two agents was tested to see their anticancer effects on bladder cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Human bladder cancer T24 cells were treated with PDF, VK3, or their combination, and cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. To explore the anticancer mechanism, cell cycle and epigenetic alterations were specifically studied. Results: PDF ≥ 500 μg/mL led to a ~ 35% reduction in cell viability while VK3 had little effects. However, when PDF (300 μg/mL) was combined with VK3 (5 μM), a ~ 75% cell viability reduction was attained. This specific combination induced a G1 cell cycle arrest with the downregulation of G1-specific regulators. In addition, histone deacetylase was inactivated while histones 3 and 4 were highly acetylated. Two apoptotic regulators were significantly activated with PDF/VK3 combination as well. Conclusion: The specific combination of PDF and VK3 appears to potentiate anticancer effect on T24 cells. This is primarily attributed to a G1 cell cycle arrest with chromatin modifications, ultimately leading to apoptosis. Thus, the PDF/VK3 combination may offer a potential therapeutic option for bladder cancer.


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