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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 153-162

Research advancement in the tumor biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma

1 College of Pharmacy, Qinghai Nationalities University, Xining, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Experimental Teaching Center of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China
3 Qinghai Forestry and Grassland Bureau, Qinghai Forest and Seedling Station, Xining, China
4 School of Basic Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China
5 Qinghai Tianrong Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Technology Development Limited Company, Qinghai, China
6 College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
7 Department of Pathology and Precision Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Jinan University, Jinan, China

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Guangjing Yin
No. 25, South of Xichuan Road, Xining, Qinhai
Dr. Qing Du
No. 3, Bayi Mid.Road, Chengdong District, Xining, Qinghai
Prof. Wenbin Guan
Mail Box 159, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
Prof. Yuanzhi Lu
No. 613, West Huangpu Avenue, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ctm.ctm_32_18

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of mortality due to malignancy next to gastric cancer and esophageal cancer. Several causal factors have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of HCC including regional and age difference, hepatitis virus, aflatoxin, chemicals, liver cirrhosis, and family heredity. Compared to the initial symptoms of HCC, the late symptoms are more obvious, which are liver pain, fatigue, emaciation, jaundice, and ascites. This paper summarized 30 biomarkers from organs, tissues, cells, and subcellular systems to be used for the diagnosis, detection, staging, and evaluation of the HCC so as to predict or prognoses diseases. The biomarker degrees of healthy people have a certain range of indicators. Pathological and clinical diagnostic methods are mainly used to detect various biomarkers related to HCC, such as the common detection of alpha-fetoprotein to detect HCC. Diverse indicators are determined by the modern technology so that we can explore and clarify the possible indicators associated with the pathogenesis of diseases in the organisms. In general, if one or more biomarkers are beyond the normal range, it would predict the presence of HCC in the body. Here, we try to provide a significant contribution toward clinical screening, prediction, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up monitoring of HCC and related diseases through elucidating the conception, production and influencing factors, sources, and biochemical indicator-associated tumor markers.

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