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2018| July-August | Volume 4 | Issue 4
August 31, 2018
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Therapy-induced histopathological changes in breast cancers: The changing role of pathology in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment
Shazima Sheereen, Flora D Lobo, Waseemoddin Patel, Shamama Sheereen, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, Mubeen Khan
July-August 2018, 4(4):89-94
Breast cancer therapy causes morphological alterations in the cancerous as well as the surrounding healthy tissue. The histopathological interpretation in such cases, thus, requires a thorough knowledge of the cytological and stromal changes rendered by the therapy during and posttherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such cytological and stromal changes rendered by the therapy in breast cancer cases.
The present study was a combined retrospective and prospective study, wherein clinical and histopathological details were collected from a total of 39 cases of breast carcinoma before and posttherapy, and the changes induced by the therapy were correlated.
Stage II breast carcinoma was found to be the most predominant stage, while invasive ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) of tumor was the most common histologic type both before (94.87%) and after (76.92%) therapy. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was observed in 18% of the cases while 15% showed pathologic partial response (pPR) and 66.7% cases had a stable disease. Intracellular changes commonly noted after chemotherapy included nuclear enlargement, hyperchromasia, and increased nuclear: cytoplasmic ratio while predominant stromal changes included necrosis (74.4%), fibrosis (64.1%), and desmoplasia (59%).
Breast cancer therapy causes morphological alterations in the cancerous as well as the surrounding healthy tissue. The histopathological interpretation in such cases, thus, requires a thorough knowledge of the cytological and stromal changes rendered by the therapy.
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Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, role in cancer, and novel drug target
Antonio Lucena-Cacace, Amancio Carnero
July-August 2018, 4(4):109-116
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD
) pool is an important electron exchanger in tumor biology. The salvage pathway plays an important role in the regulation of the levels of cellular NAD
biosynthesis and the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway. Thus, NAMPT plays a key role in the levels of the NAD
pool. NAMPT levels in several types of cancer, both solid and hematological cancers, are found to be high compared to the normal tissue. In these tumors, NAMPT overexpression induces an increase in tumorigenic properties. Increased transcription levels of NAMPT result in an increased rate of growth, resistance to cell death, and epidermal-to-mesenchymal transition imparting cancer stem cell-like properties in tumorigenic cells. Main stemness signaling pathways such as Notch, Hippo, Sonic, and Wnt are associated with increased NAMPT transcription levels. NAMPT-induced oncogenic phenotype is also associated with worse prognosis and resistance to therapy in human tumors. Therefore, NAMPT could be an interesting enzyme to consider as probable therapeutic target.
Transarterial embolization for hepatocellular adenomas: Case report and literature review
Jian-Hong Zhong, Kang Chen, Bhavesh K Ahir, Qi Huang, Ye Wu, Cheng-Cheng Liao, Rong-Rong Jia, Bang-De Xiang, Le-Qun Li
July-August 2018, 4(4):102-108
Hepatocellular adenoma (HCAs) is a rare benign tumor in the liver. Bleeding and malignant transformation are the two severe outcomes of HCAs. Transarterial embolization (TAE) is used to treat HCAs; however, its role in an elective setting is uncertain. Here, we report a case with HCA treated by TAE in an elective setting, followed by resection after 2 months, because of stable disease. Further, we performed a comprehensive review of PubMed database for studies published between January 2000 and June 2018 involving TAE to treat HCA. The review included 22 studies involving 1504 patients with HCA, of whom 89.4% were female. Only 171/1504 (11.4%) patients received TAE, among whom resection was avoided in 80 (46.8%) patients, of whom 31 (38.7%) were bleeding before TAE and 49 (61.3%) were not. Based on data of 115 tumors reviewed, the rate of complete and partial response were 9.6% and 74.8%, respectively, with an overall (complete + partial) response of 84.3%. No mortality or adverse side effects were noted. Therefore, both in elective setting and in the setting of bleeding, TAE can be considered safe in the management of HCAs and may be regarded as reasonable alternative management to hepatic resection.
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Glioma Research in the era of medical big data
Feiyifan Wang, Christopher J Pirozzi, Xuejun Li
July-August 2018, 4(4):95-101
Glioma is the most common type of malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Studies of the biological mechanism behind its occurrence and development have significant importance in better understanding glioma. In the era of multiomics and big data, glioma research is undergoing a paradigm shift from traditional standardized medical models to precision medicine. Big data in glioma research is in its infancy, and as such, there are exciting opportunities to take advantage of. However, there are also major challenges that must be addressed. This review introduces a series of changes in glioma research brought about by medical big data. It further elaborates on how big data bioinformatic analyzes can contribute to the identification of molecular targets, leading to molecular pathological diagnosis and the promotion of precision medicine of glioma.
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