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   2020| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 25, 2020

 
 
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MINI REVIEW
Potential inhibitor for 2019-novel coronaviruses in drug development
Xiaohui Xu, Zilong Dang, Lei Zhang, Lingxue Zhuang, Wutang Jing, Lupeng Ji, Guoyu Qiu
January-March 2020, 6(1):17-20
DOI:10.4103/ctm.ctm_3_20  
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is first detected in Wuhan, China, is a virus identified as the cause of pneumonia. In the event of epidemic outbreak, a series of actions have been taken by the Chinese government to control the pandemic of the virus, and effective medical methods are in urgent need to prevent COVID-19 infection and cure the disease, especially a drug that can suppress COVID-19 is urgently needed. However, there are no specific drugs and vaccine that can prevent coronavirus infection. Some research works on the transmissibility, severity, and other features associated with this virus are ongoing. Some works about new drug against COVID-19 are carried out; more time is required to develop an effective drug against pneumonia caused by COVID-19. Now, to develop broad-spectrum antiviral agents, there is a quick method to identify drugs with high binding capacity with COVID-19 by virtual screening based on the clinical drug libraries; all these drugs have been widely used in clinical applications with guaranteed safety, which may serve as promising candidates to treat the infection of COVID-19. In this article, we summarize the discovery and clinical application of specific drugs against COVID-19 as potential inhibitors to alleviate the current epidemic.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinicopathological association of p16 and its impact on outcome of chemoradiation in head-and-neck squamous cell cancer patients in North-East India
Srigopal Mohanty, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi, Nithin Raj Daniel, Dulasi Raman Ponna, Madhubala Devi, Laishram Jaichand Singh
January-March 2020, 6(1):10-16
DOI:10.4103/ctm.ctm_34_19  
Purpose: Human papillomavirus-associated head–and-neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is following an increasing trend in Western countries, which has unique biology and confers better prognosis, whereas there are limited data from Indian studies in this context. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate the clinicopathological association of p16 in locally advanced HNSCC and its impact on outcome of chemoradiation. The study population was divided into two arms; p16-positive and p16-negative arms. All patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiation using weekly cisplatin. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 21 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square test and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate different association and impact of p16. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The present study found p16-positive HNSCC patients to be associated with better performance status (P = 0.010), oropharyngeal primary location (P = 0.034), advanced nodal stage at presentation (P = 0.000), and higher histopathologic grade of tumor (P = 0.021) and was associated with better response (P = 0.005) to concurrent chemoradiation. Subsite analysis revealed p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) to have significantly better response (P = 0.036) to chemoradiation, whereas a trend toward better response to chemoradiation (P = 0.066) was found among p16-positive non-OPSCC. Higher p16 expression score was associated with better (P = 0.000) response to chemoradiation. Multivariate analysis revealed p16 to have an independent positive impact on tumor response to chemoradiation in HNSCC irrespective of tumor subsite. Conclusion: p16 overexpression is a good prognostic factor in both OPSCC and non-OPSCC. Treatment response have a positive correlation with intensity of p16 staining in the tissue biopsy material.
  1,518 171 -
Protein disulfide isomerase A3: A potential regulatory factor of colon epithelial cells
Yang Li, Zhenfan Huang, Haiping Jiang
January-March 2020, 6(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/ctm.ctm_33_19  
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) on the proliferation and apoptosis of colon epithelial cells, so as to explore its possible role in colon compensation of ultra-short bowel syndrome. Methods: The expression of PDIA3 gene in NCM460 colonic epithelial cells was upregulated and silenced by liposome transient transfection technique. The expression of PDIA3 protein was determined by Western blotting, the proliferation rate of NCM460 cells was detected by CCK8, and the apoptosis rate of NCM460 cells was determined by flow cytometry. Results: DNA sequencing and Western blotting results successfully verified that PDIA3 protein expression in NCM460 cells was upregulated and silenced by liposomal transfection. In the PDIA3 overexpression experiment, the proliferation rate of the experimental group was lower than that of the empty carrier group at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the apoptosis rate of the experimental group was higher than that of the empty carrier group (P < 0.05, the difference was statistically significant). In the PDIA3-silenced experiment, the proliferation rate of the experimental group was higher than that of the empty carrier group at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the apoptosis rate of the experimental group was lower than that of the empty carrier group (P < 0.05, the difference was statistically significant). Conclusion: PDIA3 inhibits the proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells (NCM460) and promotes their apoptosis, which may not be a key regulatory protein in colon compensation of ultra-short bowel syndrome.
  1,306 156 -
CASE REPORT
Best-match blood transfusion in pediatric patients with mixed autoantibodies
Debasish Mishra, Dibyajyoti Sahoo, Smita Mahapatra, Ashutosh Panigrahi
January-March 2020, 6(1):21-23
DOI:10.4103/ctm.ctm_27_19  
Finding matched blood in autoimmune hemolytic anemic (AIHA) patients is extremely difficult due to autoantibodies. Generally, these antibodies directed against antigens of high prevalence. It is essential for transfusion purposes to provide blood without alloantibodies. We report three cases of mixed AIHA in children. Mixed AIHA may present with blood group discrepancy, as well as incompatibility may possess difficult situation for transfusion laboratory to provide blood units to patients. The patient must be transfused cautiously with least-incompatible, ABO and Rh/ Kell phenotype-matched packed red blood cells slowly under strict supervision and steroid cover.
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