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   Table of Contents - Current issue
November-December 2018
Volume 4 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 143-169

Online since Friday, December 28, 2018

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Assessing the feasibility of using deformable registration for onboard multimodality-based target localization in radiation therapy p. 143
Ge Ren, Yawei Zhang, Lei Ren
Aim: This study aims to explore the feasibility of using prior images and deformable image registration to generate onboard multimodality images to improve the soft tissue contrast of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), for target localization in radiation therapy. Methods: B-spline-based deformable registration is used to register magnetic resonance/computed tomography (MR/CT) images with CBCT images to generate synthetic onboard MR/CT images for onboard target localization. Liver, prostate, and breast patient data were used in the study to investigate the feasibility of the method. Results: Most of the tumor volume defined by the onboard synthetic images was covered by the planning target volume (PTV) based on the shifts applied in clinical practice. For 6 liver cases, 5 prostate cases, and all the breast cases, the synthetic images allowed the reduction of the PTV margin to 1.5–7 mm, 1–4 mm, and 1–1.5 mm, respectively. The dose to the normal tissue can be reduced based on the optimized margin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using onboard synthetic multimodality imaging to improve the soft tissue contrast for target localization in low contrast regions. This new technique holds great promises to optimize the PTV margin and improve the treatment accuracy in radiation therapy.
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Research advancement in the tumor biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma p. 153
Qing Du, Xiaoying Ji, Guangjing Yin, Dengxian Wei, Pengcheng Lin, Yongchang Lu, Yugui Li, Qiaohong Yang, Shizhu Liu, Jinliang Ku, Wenbin Guan, Yuanzhi Lu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of mortality due to malignancy next to gastric cancer and esophageal cancer. Several causal factors have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of HCC including regional and age difference, hepatitis virus, aflatoxin, chemicals, liver cirrhosis, and family heredity. Compared to the initial symptoms of HCC, the late symptoms are more obvious, which are liver pain, fatigue, emaciation, jaundice, and ascites. This paper summarized 30 biomarkers from organs, tissues, cells, and subcellular systems to be used for the diagnosis, detection, staging, and evaluation of the HCC so as to predict or prognoses diseases. The biomarker degrees of healthy people have a certain range of indicators. Pathological and clinical diagnostic methods are mainly used to detect various biomarkers related to HCC, such as the common detection of alpha-fetoprotein to detect HCC. Diverse indicators are determined by the modern technology so that we can explore and clarify the possible indicators associated with the pathogenesis of diseases in the organisms. In general, if one or more biomarkers are beyond the normal range, it would predict the presence of HCC in the body. Here, we try to provide a significant contribution toward clinical screening, prediction, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up monitoring of HCC and related diseases through elucidating the conception, production and influencing factors, sources, and biochemical indicator-associated tumor markers.
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Novel insights into the role of bacterial gut microbiota in hepatocellular carcinoma p. 163
Lei Zhang, Guoyu Qiu, Xiaohui Xu, Yufeng Zhou, Ruiming Chang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mostly develops in patients with chronic liver disease, driven by a vicious cycle of liver injury, inflammation, and regeneration. Increasing evidence points to the influence of bacterial gut microbiota influence on chronic liver disease and the development of HCC. We will review how bacterial gut microbiota contributes to HCC and relevant therapeutic strategies, focusing on alterations of the bacterial gut microbiota at different disease stages and mechanisms by which it contributes to disease progression and HCC development in different types of liver diseases.
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Central odontogenic fibroma with unusual presenting symptoms p. 167
Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal
The central odontogenic fibroma is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It arises from either dental follicle or periodontal ligament or dental papilla. The lesion is characterized by collagenous fibrous connective tissue, containing varying number of islands or strands of odontogenic epithelium. Here, we present a case report of odontogenic fibroma in a 20-year-old female patient with unusual presenting symptoms.
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