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  Most popular articles (Since January 05, 2015)

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Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion
Chenyang Liu, Qian Qian, Shen Geng, Wenkui Sun, Yi Shi
July-August 2015, 1(4):131-136
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common clinical problem caused by cancers. Pleural effusion can be the first sign of cancer in more than 25% of patients. Lung cancer and breast cancer are the most common cancers that metastasize to the pleura in men and women, respectively. Other cancers, including, but not limited to, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, and several unknown primary cancers can also lead to MPE. Dyspnea and chest pain are the most common symptoms of MPE along with other symptoms such as a cough, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and weakness. Aggravation of these symptoms is closely related to the rate of accumulation of pleural effusion. Treatment options to MPE are determined by the type and extent of the underlying malignancy. The major goals of the treatment are to relieve symptoms, restore functions, improve the quality of life, and minimize the duration of hospital stay and costs. Although some patients can be treated with systemic therapies, most of these treatments are temporary, and MPE would recur soon. Hence, further palliative treatments to effectively control pleural effusions and relieve symptoms are necessary. This review addresses the pathophysiology of MPE and the treatment options for patients with MPE.
  20,992 1,066 4
BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond
Haiming Dai, X Wei Meng, Scott H Kaufmann
January-February 2016, 2(1):7-20
Apoptosis is a morphologically and biochemically distinct form of cell death that plays an essential role in development, immune response, and tissue homeostasis. Diminished apoptosis is also considered a hallmark of cancer whereas many cancer treatments induce apoptosis in susceptible cells. Classically, this induction of apoptosis occurs through two major signaling pathways: the extrinsic pathway and the intrinsic pathway. It has been known for 20 years that B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) family proteins control the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by regulating the process of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) through protein-protein interactions. Recent studies have elucidated how BCL2 antagonist/killer (BAK) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) are activated by BCL2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins and how activated BAK and BAX permeabilize MOM, providing increased understanding of how BCL2 family proteins control MOMP. Moreover, both structural and biochemical studies have revealed dual roles for anti-apoptotic BCL2 family proteins in inhibiting BH3-only proteins and restraining activated BAK and BAX. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how BCL2 family proteins control MOMP as well as new nonapoptotic functions for these proteins.
  13,671 1,401 20
An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research
Zonggao Shi, M Sharon Stack
July-August 2015, 1(4):115-122
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) takes advantage of the specific binding between antigen and antibody to measure the presence and abundance of antigen while simultaneously providing morphologic context on a tissue section. Since the revolutionary application of heat-induced epitope retrieval methods on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, which started in early 1990s, IHC has been routinely used in diagnostic pathology. This approach has also enabled mining of the rich archives of pathologic specimens for exploration in translational cancer research. Newer IHC biomarkers are being continuously found as aids in differential diagnosis, prediction of outcome or response to molecular-targeted therapies. These are prime examples for translational cancer research. The last decade has witnessed some significant improvements in the use of this technology. This review provides an overview on the current status of IHC as applied in translational cancer research, commenting on the underlying principles in specimen preparation, reagent choice, staining procedure, and results evaluation so that both beginners and seasoned users could appreciate the key factors and benefit from this update.
  8,108 1,093 2
Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review
Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu
May-June 2015, 1(3):94-100
Spinal metastasis is the most common tumor in the spine and can easily expand to the epidural space. A series of approaches have been developed to deal with this problem including radiation, surgery, and medicine. The further goal of the treatment is to relieve pain, stabilize spinal structure, maintain neurologic function and improve the quality of life. Different frameworks have been proposed to optimize the best therapy for different patients. This review briefly summarizes different treatments for spinal metastases and some popular decision-making frameworks.
  6,253 994 1
Galanin is a novel epigenetic silenced functional tumor suppressor in renal cell carcinoma
Shengkun Sun, Axiang Xu, Guoqiang Yang, Yingduan Cheng
November-December 2015, 1(6):183-187
Aim: To assess the expression level and function of Galanin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: The expression level of Galanin in a series of RCC cell lines (769P, 786-O, A498, Caki-1, and ACHN) was studied. 786-O cells were exposed to pharmacological demethylation to assess the involvement of promoter methylation downregulation of Galanin level. Galanin normal expressed ACHN cell line was knockdown with siRNA and was further used to study its role in cell proliferation and invasion. The downstream targets were screened by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Galanin was downregulated in two (786-O and A498) out of five RCC cell lines. Pharmacological demethylation restored the Galanin expression to normal levels in 786-O cells suggesting of its downregulation through promoter methylation. Knockdown of Galanin resulted in increased proliferation and invasion ability of ACHN cells while increasing the expression of oncogenes MYC, CCND1, and FRA1. Conclusion: The above results suggest that Galanin behaves as a tumor suppressor gene in RCC and may be of clinical importance as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in renal cancer patients.
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“Eating” Cancer cells by blocking CD47 signaling: Cancer therapy by targeting the innate immune checkpoint
Yi-Rong Xiang, Li Liu
November-December 2017, 3(6):200-208
Differing from the adaptive immune checkpoint mediated by programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) PD-1-ligand or CTLA-4, the CD47 and signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) axis is emerging as a novel innate immune checkpoint of the immune cells of myeloid lineage. A balance should be established between the dual signals, the “Don't eat me signal” of CD47-SIRPα and the “Eat me signal” of calreticulin/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. The enhanced expression of CD47 molecule has been found in many cancer tissues, including malignant blood tumors (acute myeloid leukemia) and solid tumors. A therapeutic value could be achieved by counteracting the expression of CD47 in cancer cells. In the recent years, great progress has been made to develop anticancer therapies by targeting CD47 (e.g., anti-CD47 antibody), in various types of cancer. However, there are a few challenges, like “antigen sink” in the clinical translation of CD47-mediated anticancer therapies, the attention to which is crucial.
  5,690 887 8
Fish oil and prostate cancer: Effects and clinical relevance
Pei Liang, Michael Gao
May-June 2017, 3(3):80-86
Men who intake high ratios of fish oil or omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, relative to omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints regarding the association between omega-3 FA consumption and risk of prostate cancer are studded with controversial results. However, many clinical trials have shown that fish oil could decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. The anticancer properties of anticancer drugs could be greatly improved when combined with fish oil. We briefly reviewed fish oil and relevant omega-3 FAs as well as early investigations in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.
  6,079 469 1
Choline kinase inhibitors synergize with TRAIL in the treatment of colorectal tumors and overcomes TRAIL resistance
Juan Carlos Lacal, Ladislav Andera
November-December 2016, 2(6):163-174
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of choline kinase inhibitor MN58b and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) against colon cancer cells. Methods: TRAIL-sensitive (DLD-1) and TRAIL-resistant (SW620) cells were treated with MN58b and/or TRAIL. Cell viability and induction of apoptosis were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry. Posttreatment expression levels of different proteins (PARP, caspase-3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein [XIAP], CHOP, DR5, DR4, CHOP) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and flow cytometry.In vivo antitumoral activity was assessed by xenograft models. Results: A strong synergistic effect of TRAIL and MN58b was observed in both TRAIL-sensitive and resistant cells. The combinatory treatment induced an increase in PARP and active-caspase 3 fragments along with a decrease in XIAP, enhancing TRAIL sensitivity. Reduced cellular viability and increased cell death correlated with increased DR5 expression and membrane surface recruitment, an effect that was concomitant with CHOP expression. Conclusion: MN58b, which alone exhibits anticancer activities against a wide variety of tumor-derived cell lines, synergizes with TRAIL through a mechanism that involves DR5 upregulation. This study supports the use of MN58b in combination with TRAIL on colorectal tumors, including those that develop TRAIL resistance.
  2,449 3,839 2
The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer
Mahnaz M Kazi, Trupti I Trivedi, Toral P Kobawala, Nandita R Ghosh
March-April 2016, 2(2):55-60
Cancer development and progression as well as tumor recurrence are largely due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are maintained through various pathways. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is the fundamental pathway, which when deregulated leads to tumor development by sustaining CSC population. Along with the upregulation of its various components, Wnt pathway is highly active in cancer cells resulting in increased expression of the target genes. In breast cancer condition, convincing results are available wherein the Wnt pathway activation in breast cancer cells increases the cell motility while its blockade suppresses their aggressive behavior in vitro. Further, numerous reports on breast cancer patients have documented the importance of activation of Wnt pathway and its components to an extent that the regulation can be exploited therapeutically with promising results. In addition, recent research has laid emphasis on the significance of Wnt pathway in the triple-negative breast cancer, a molecular subtype of breast cancer, which lacks targeted therapy till date. Hence, understanding of Wnt signaling and its targeting to treat such patients can be an assuring approach.
  5,023 922 11
Quantum Dot-based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications
Li Zhou, Jingzhe Yan, Lingxia Tong, Xuezhe Han, Xuefeng Wu, Peng Guo
January-February 2016, 2(1):21-28
Quantum dots (QDs) are novel light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals with diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. In comparison with traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs possess unique optical properties including extremely high fluorescence efficiency and minimal photobleaching which make them emerge as a new class of fluorescent labels for molecular imaging and biomedical analysis. Herein, recent advances in fundamental mechanisms and pathological applications of QD were reviewed.
  5,172 762 1
Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application
Pengxing Zhang, Xiaoling Pang, Yanyang Tu
January-February 2015, 1(1):26-30
Initially identified in HL60 cells treated with Vitamin D3, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is considered as a major redox regulator and a potential connector between cellular redox state and metabolism. TXNIP plays an important role in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism, and it has been defined as a tumor suppressor gene in various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. This review gives an overview of the mechanism of various medicines including Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Quercetin, trans-resveratrol, metformin, purple sweet potato color, nobiletin, taurine, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and Theophylline, and their potential applications in the clinical treatment of many diseases.
  5,266 601 -
Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study
Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila
March-April 2016, 2(2):33-36
Aim: Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are among the most common cancers that affect human population worldwide. This study aims to analyze the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical and histopathological features, and metastasis in OSCC cases. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included the subjects reported to Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology in A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences between 2009 and 2013. Data on age, gender, tumor location, lymph node metastasis, associated risk factors, and histopathological grades were recorded and subjected to Pearson's Chi-square analysis for any correlation between habits and other variables. Results: A total of 61 cases were included. Male: female ratio was 2.6:1 with maximum cases seen in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Totally, 59 cases reported tobacco chewing habit and 2 cases reported sharp teeth. Quid chewing was the most frequently reported habit and buccal mucosa was the common site. Most cases were well differentiated, associated with quid chewing and without nodal metastasis. The correlation of habits to other variables was statistically insignificant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, betel quid chewing was the most important etiological agent of OSCC and was associated with the few cases of poorly differentiated OSCC.
  4,977 747 6
Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death-ligand 1 Antibodies
Tengfei Zhang, Ling Cao, Zhen Zhang, Dongli Yue, Yu Ping, Hong Li, Lan Huang, Yi Zhang
March-April 2015, 1(2):43-49
Cancer immunotherapy strategies based on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced T cells or antibodies against immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), achieved significant successes from bench to clinic in the past 2 years. CARs are artificial engineered receptors that can specifically target tumor cell surface antigen, activate T cell and further enhance T cell function, independent of major histocompatibility complex. CAR T cells have shown promising outcomes in cancers, especially in hematologic malignancies. CTLA-4 and PD-1 are two important immune checkpoints negatively regulating T cell activation. Clinical benefits of CTLA-4/PD-1 antibodies are significant in melanoma and other solid tumors. PD-1 is predicted to have fewer side effects and greater antitumor activity than CTLA-4. In this review, we will summarize current immunotherapies based on CAR T cells and PD-1.
  4,877 815 -
Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma
Nan Liu, Yanyang Tu
March-April 2015, 1(2):50-66
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs. The discovery of miRNA has provided a novel tool to the research of tumor pathogenesis, and a new strategy to the diagnosis and prognosis of human cancers. Currently, numerous studies have indicated that the deregulation of miRNAs in glioma is closely related to glioma pathogenesis and progress. miRNAs function as key regulators of glioma through negative control of the target gene expression, by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of its messenger RNA which regulate the cell proliferation, apoptosis and prognosis of glioma. Moreover, radiation and chemotherapy resistance in glioma therapy is also caused by deregulation of miRNAs. It has been suggested that miRNAs act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in glioma. Not only can miRNAs be used as biomarkers of glioma diagnosis and therapy, but also as novel targets of glioma gene therapy.
  4,871 635 12
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count
Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal
September-October 2015, 1(5):181-182
B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) often presents with pancytopenia/bicytopenia, with thrombocytopenia being the most important parameter. The case of a 12-year-old child with bicytopenia on peripheral smear was presented. On bone marrow examination, 85% morphologically lymphoid blasts, negative for myeloperoxidase, and periodic-acid Schiff on cytochemistry were found. The blasts suppressed the erythroid population but not the megakaryocytic population. On flow cytometry, a diagnosis of common-ALL-antigen positive B-precursor ALL was concluded. To conclude, ALL cannot be excluded in patients who present with a normal platelet count. A bone marrow aspirate is crucial in patients with bi/pancytopenia.
  5,065 361 3
Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation
Kaijun Huang, Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Wanhua Yang, Rajeev L Balmiki
May-June 2016, 2(3):90-94
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-induced immunodeficiency has been implicated in the occurrence of several secondary or concurrent malignancies. We hereby present the first case of combined CLL and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor as collision neoplasms within metastatic periportal lymphadenopathy in a 62-year-old patient who presented with obstructive jaundice. An ovoid nodular mass was seen posterior to the head of the pancreas on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and the patient subsequently underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, with successful placement of two stents within the identified hilar stricture. Tn-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT)/CT disclosed two foci of somatostatin receptor positive tissue in the upper abdomen correlating to the previously seen porta hepatis and portacaval lymphadenopathy and the patient was treated with octreotide. Simultaneous onset of CLL and secondary malignancies that each has a different disease status is a rare phenomenon but is important to diagnose for establishing an appropriate treatment strategy, which in certain cases may involve the use of agents active in both types of malignancy to minimize toxicity.
  4,950 348 1
The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations
Khaled Kyle Wong, Zhirong Qian, Yi Le
March-April 2016, 2(2):41-47
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer due to its heterogeneous nature and the difficulty of detecting lesions in the pancreas during the early stages of tumorigenesis. Until recently, progress has been slow in developing methods to detect pancreatic lesions early. However, recent advances in genetics, biomarkers, imaging, and surgical procedures have aided the early detection of such lesions before the incurable metastatic disease state. Precision medicine has benefited pancreatic cancer patients in such areas as genetics, more targeted approaches to therapy, immunotherapy advances, and the discovery of more ideal biomarkers. In this review, the various studies and trials in these areas were reviewed to illustrate the promise of precision medicine.
  4,376 786 3
Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer
Zhengxi He, Bin Li
May-June 2015, 1(3):80-93
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of death from cancer worldwide, with 5-year survival rate for about 20% of the affected individuals. Although there is a decrease in the intestinal-type GC (IGC), the incidence of diffuse-type is still increasing, and its progression is notoriously aggressive. Clinically, diffuse GCs (DGCs) propensity for invasion into adjacent tissue, with prominent stromal induction, which presents with linitis plastica, peritoneal implantation and remote metastasis, ends up in dismal prognosis, and translates into poor quality of life. So far, a few molecularly targeted drugs, including HER2 antagonists, have been developed against GC, but most in treating IGC. Thus, DGC constitutes a poor prognosis subgroup of GC with no known promising therapies. Recent genomic characterization of GC by whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing showed that a large number of known cancer-related genes are frequently mutated in gastric malignancies. In the light of this discovery, we did an extensive review of recent literature on progress in genetic and epigenetic profile of DGC. The summary of which makes us believe that it is possible to develop novel therapeutic strategies against this otherwise devastating disease that undergo massive invasion and metastasis.
  4,540 539 2
Patient-derived xenografts as models for personalized medicine research in cancer
Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero
November-December 2016, 2(6):197-202
Basic research and clinical trials are essential components of the process of discovery and development of new drugs. The use of preclinical models is a key component in every aspect of drug development in cancer. Unfortunately, preclinical models often fail to capture the diverse heterogeneity of human malignancies, and the correlation between the antitumor activity of cytotoxic agents observed in these animal models and that observed in humans is poor. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the application of preclinical cancer models which can actually recapitulate the clinical disease, including patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). PDX models maintain the phenotypic, genetic, and molecular characteristics of the original tumor and reflect tumor pathology. This review discusses the limitation of the conventional strategy of developing new drugs in oncology and proposes the PDX models as a powerful technology for the biological study of tumors and to evaluate the antitumoral effect of new compounds.
  4,221 747 1
Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing
Hairui Su, Yanyan Liu, Xinyang Zhao
January-February 2015, 1(1):21-25
Split End (SPEN) family proteins have three members: SPEN, RBM15, and RBM15B. SPEN family proteins contain three conserved RNA recognition motifs on the N-terminal region and an SPOC domain on the C-terminal region. RBM15 is fused to MKL1 in chromosome translocation t (1;22), which causes childhood acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Haploinsufficiency of RBM15 in AMKL indicates that RBM15 is a tumor suppressor. Both SPEN and RBM15 are mutated in a variety of cancer types, implying that they are tumor suppressors. SPEN and RBM15are required for the development of multiple organs including hematopoiesis partly via regulating the NOTCH signaling pathway, as well as the WNT signaling pathway in species ranging from Drosophila to mammals. Besides transcriptional regulation, RBM15 regulates RNA export and RNA splicing. In this review, we summarized data in the literature on how the members in SPEN family regulate gene expression at transcription and RNA processing steps. The crosstalk between epigenetic regulation and RNA metabolism is increasingly appreciated in understanding tumorigenesis. Studying the SPEN family of RNA binding proteins will create new perspectives for cancer therapy.
  4,367 593 -
Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T-stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma
Shengen Yi, Xiongjian Cui, Li Xiong, Xiaofeng Deng, Dongni Pei, Yu Wen, Xiongying Miao
January-February 2015, 1(1):1-5
Aim: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCC) has a very poor prognosis. Surgical resection is a radical treatment option for this disease. However, it is still difficult to cure, and prognostic traits are ambiguous. Evaluation of the tumor typing and staging may elucidate effective prognosis and provide helpful advice for clinical surgeon. This study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of tumor typing and staging in HCC. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 85 patients with HCC undergoing surgical resections procedures at the Second Xiangya Hospital in Hunan Province between 2002 and 2012. The Bismuth type, modified T-stage, postoperative complications, survival time, and other clinical manifestations associated with the surgical treatment were analyzed. Results: Patients were classified according to Bismuth typing: Subtype I (12 cases), Subtype II (4 cases), Subtype IIIa (3 cases), Subtype IIIb (16 cases), and Subtype IV (50 cases). Patients were classified according to the T staging: Stage T1 (19 cases), Stage T2 (5 cases), and Stage T3 (61 cases). Based on data collected from 67 patients who completed the follow-up survey, both the Bismuth type and modified T-stage were significantly correlated with survival time (each P = 0.01). Conclusion: The majority of our patients with HCC were characterized as Subtype IV in Bismuth typing and Stage T3 in modified T-stage. Both Bismuth typing and modified T-stage showed prognostic value in HCC. Compared with Bismuth typing, modified T-stage is a better indicator of the resectability of HCC.
  4,375 494 -
Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer
Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin
May-June 2015, 1(3):101-107
Liver cancer is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide, the management of which demands a multidisciplinary approach. Conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have gained reasonable success. However, most of these patients experience a severe torment, both mentally and physically. Numerous studies have indicated that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when used in conjunction with conventional allopathic therapies, can enhance their efficacy and diminish the resulting side effects and complications. Therefore, a deeper understanding of TCM is of immense help to physicians and other health care providers in providing a better care to patients. TCM is proved to be efficacious in terms of suppressing tumor progression, improving immune system function, and increasing the sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapies. Although TCM can be delivered in various dosage forms, pills, decoctions, and injections are the three most commonly used forms in treating liver cancer. While these traditional dosage forms limits the usage of herbal medicines to their full potential novel TCM delivery forms such as nanoparticles can enhance the bioavailability, reduce any associated side effect, achieve targeted delivery, and improve the acceptance of TCM by patients. This review summarizes the current application of TCM in different prescriptions and dosage forms in the treatment of liver cancer, along with their advantages and disadvantages, all of which is believed to contribute to better understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as an essential part in the treatment of liver cancer and the importance of this trend to combine TCM and western medicine in novel dosage forms for a better management of the condition.
  4,209 447 2
CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review
Lu Huang, Weiguo Lv, Xiaofeng Zhao
January-February 2016, 2(1):29-32
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer, with a mortality rate of > 60%. Cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis offers an attractive explanation of chemoresistance, metastasis, etc., associated with the disease. However, there are still controversy and limitation in defining the CSC markers. CD24 is a mucin-type glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein, expressed on the surface of cells, which serves as a normal receptor for P-selectin and is found involved in molecular adhesion and metastatic tumor spread. Expression rate of CD24 has been associated with progression of various cancers and poor survival rates. In this review, the function of CD24 in ovarian cancer, especially in ovarian CSC system, was discussed in an effort to broaden the interpretation of potential mechanism.
  4,027 603 3
MicroRNA regulating metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells: New tumor markers
Daniel Otero-Albiol, Blanca Felipe-Abrio
November-December 2016, 2(6):175-181
Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of cancer cells that provides fast energy production and the abundance of precursors required to fuel uncontrolled proliferation. The Warburg effect, increase in glucose uptake and preference for glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as major source of energy even in the presence of oxygen, is the main metabolic adaptation of cancer cells but not the only one. Increased glutaminolysis is also observed in cancer cells, being another source of adenosine triphosphate production and supply of intermediates for macromolecule biosynthesis. The ability to shift from OXPHOS to glycolysis and vice versa, known as metabolic plasticity, allows cancer cells to adapt to continuous changes in the tumor microenvironment. Metabolic reprogramming is linked to the deregulation of pathways controlled by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, MYC, or p53, and microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of these signaling pathways. miRNAs target metabolic enzymes, oncogenes, and tumor suppressors involved in metabolic reprogramming, becoming crucial elements in the cross talk of molecular pathways that promotes survival, proliferation, migration, and consequently, tumor progression and metastasis. Moreover, several miRNAs have been found downregulated in different human cancers. Due to this fact and their central role in metabolism regulation, miRNAs may be considered as biomarkers for cancer therapy.
  2,957 1,496 5
Metformin in ovarian cancer therapy: A discussion
Yeling Ouyang, Xi Chen, Chunyun Zhang, Vichitra Bunyamanop, Jianfeng Guo
July-August 2016, 2(4):119-124
Overweight and obesity are dramatically increasing worldwide. In addition to being the most important factor for the increase in diabetes prevalence, there is a growing evidence of obesity being also significantly associated with the risks and poor outcome in ovarian cancer (OVC). Metformin is the most widely used first-line type 2 diabetes drug, currently being studied for its association with the decreased risk of occurrence and better survival of OVC patients. In this review, we discussed the proposed mechanisms of metformin-exerted anticancer effects, as well as the preclinical and clinical data suggesting its beneficial effect against this devastating condition.
  3,954 456 -